The version history of the Android mobile operating system began with the public release of the Android beta on November 5, The first commercial version, Android 1. Android is continually developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance OHAand it has seen several updates to its base operating system since the initial release.
The development of Android started in by Android, Inc. The first public release of Android 1.
Android version history
The code names "Astro Boy" and "Bender" were tagged internally on some of the early pre The project manager, Ryan Gibson, conceived using a confectionery-themed naming scheme for public releases, starting with Android 1. Google announced in August they were ending the confectionery theming scheme and use numerical ordering for future versions. The following tables show the release dates and key features of all Android operating system updates to date, listed chronologically by their official application programming interface API levels.
Lollipop features a redesigned user interface built around a responsive design language referred to as " material design ". Other changes include improvements to the notifications, which can be accessed from the lockscreen and displayed within applications as top-of-the-screen banners.
Furthermore, Google made internal changes to the platform, with the Android Runtime ART officially replacing Dalvik for improved application performance, and with changes intended to improve and optimize battery usage, known internally as Project Volta.
On August 22,Google announced that the official release version would be called just Android 10 dropping the convention of using letter and dessert nicknames publicly. Android 10 was going to be known as " Queen Cake ". Internally, Android 10 is known as Quince Tart. Unofficial Android-x86 project used to provide support for the x86 and MIPS architectures ahead of the official support.
While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on ARM Android used to require an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 17 April Wikipedia list.
See also: Android software development. Android 1. Android 2. Android 3. Android 4. Android 5. Android 6. Android 7. Android 8. Android 9 Pie API This document highlights what's available for developers. This option can help prevent an attack if an attacker ever managed to tamper with the locally compiled code on the device. TLS 1. For more details about our implementation of TLS 1.
The collection of classes under android. The names for these classes can be inferred as the plural of the corresponding javax. For example, code that operates on instances of javax. This feature enables your app to prompt the user to change the access point that the device is connected to by using WifiNetworkSpecifier to describe properties of a requested network. The peer-to-peer connection is used for non-network-providing purposes, such as bootstrapping configuration for secondary devices like Chromecast and Google Home hardware.Bmt conference 2019
You can supply suggestions for which network to connect to. The platform will ultimately choose which access point to accept based on the input from your and other apps. For more information about this feature, see Wi-Fi suggest. Wi-Fi power save is disabled for high-performance and low-latency mode, and further latency optimization may be enabled in low-latency mode, depending on modem support.
Low-latency mode is only enabled when the application acquiring the lock is running in the foreground and the screen is on. The low-latency mode is especially helpful for real-time mobile gaming applications.
Behavior changes: apps targeting API level 28+
Previously, the platform DNS resolver supported only A and AAAA records, which allow looking up only the IP addresses associated with a name, but did not support any other record types. Note that parsing the response is left to the app to perform.
For more information on this feature, see Wi-Fi Easy Connect. This information is shared via a side channel, such as Bluetooth or NFC. To join a group using credentials, replace manager.Android 9 API level 28 introduces a number of changes to the Android system. The following behavior changes apply exclusively to apps that are targeting API level 28 or higher. Apps that set targetSdkVersion to API level 28 or higher must modify their apps to support these behaviors properly, where applicable to the app.
For changes that affect all apps running on Android 9, regardless of which API level they target, see Behavior changes: all apps. This is a normal permissionso the system automatically grants it to the requesting app. If your app targets Android 9, you should keep the following behavior changes in mind. These updates to device serial and DNS information enhance user privacy. In Android 9, Build. In particular, apps should ensure that, if the system resolver is doing DNS-over-TLS, any built-in DNS client either uses encrypted DNS to the same hostname as the system, or is disabled in favor of the system resolver.
Android 9 includes several behavior changes that improve your app's security, but these changes take effect only if your app targets API level 28 or higher.
If your app targets Android 9 or higher, the isCleartextTrafficPermitted method returns false by default. If your app needs to enable cleartext for specific domains, you must explicitly set cleartextTrafficPermitted to true for those domains in your app's Network Security Configuration. In order to improve app stability and data integrity in Android 9, apps cannot share a single WebView data directory among multiple processes.
Typically, such data directories store cookies, HTTP caches, and other persistent and temporary storage related to web browsing. In most cases, your app should use classes from the android.
For example, you should move all Activity objects that use a WebView into the same process. You can more strictly enforce the "one process only" rule by calling disableWebView in your app's other processes.
This call prevents WebView from being initialized in those other processes by mistake, even if it's being called from a dependent library. If your app must use instances of WebView in more than one process, you must assign a unique data directory suffix for each process, using the WebView. This method places web data from each process in its own directory within your app's data directory. Apps that target Android 9 or higher cannot share data with other apps using world-accessible Unix permissions.
This change improves the integrity of the Android Application Sandboxparticularly the requirement that an app's private data is accessible only by that app.Optical fibre in telugu
To share files with other apps, use a content provider. Within apps that target Android 9 or higher, the system counts network traffic on networks that aren't the current default—such as cell traffic while the device is on Wi-Fi—and provides methods in the NetworkStatsManager class to query for that traffic. In particular, getMultipathPreference now returns a value based on the aforementioned network traffic.
Beginning with Android 9, the method returns true for cell data, but when more than a certain amount of traffic accumulates in a day, it starts returning false.
Apps running on Android 9 must call the method and honor this hint. The ConnectivityManager. NetworkCallback class now sends information about VPNs to apps. This change makes it much easier for apps to listen for connectivity events without having to mix synchronous and asynchronous calls and using limited APIs.
Additionally, it means that information transfer works as expected when a device is connected to multiple Wi-Fi networks or multiple cell networks simultaneously. With Android 6. Beginning with Android 9, that library is removed from the bootclasspath and is not available to apps by default.Status and conservation of the eurasian lynx (lynx lynx
As an alternative to using the runtime Apache library, apps can bundle their own version of the org. If you do this, you must repackage the library with a utility like Jar Jar to avoid class compatibility issues with the classes provided in the runtime. Additionally, activities no longer implicitly assign initial focus in touch-mode.Android development releases are organized into families with alphabetical codenames that are inspired by tasty treats.
In Android 8. Cn]where:. Starting with Donut, the exact list of tags and builds is in the following table. A1 android A3 android C2 android C4 android C3 android K1 android Z1 android H1 android Y1 android E1 android R1 android Q1 android P1 android N1 android G1 android B1 android D1 android C1 android As such, these branches might contain a variety of changes in addition to the official tagged releases and might not be as thoroughly tested.
To differentiate between releases, you can get a list of changes associated with each project by issuing the following command and passing it the two branch tags:. For Honeycomb, the entire platform source code isn't available. No manifest contains exactly these modules, but some manifests allow building those components. The following commands work for 3.
To use another version, change the git checkout parameter and if necessary the -m parameter in repo init. The git checkout command outputs an error for any non-GPL projects where it can't find the tag. Content and code samples on this page are subject to the licenses described in the Content License.Every year, Google unveils a new Android version.
The new flavor this year is Android Piealso known as Android 9. A recently updated Google document suggests that Android Q will be the next major Android version and not Android 9. The commit lists new functions in the C library coming to Android Q. For example, Android 8. That obviously turned out to not be the case because I had failed to take into account the possibility that Google had already completed work on Android Oreo MR1 in their internal master branch.
Keeping up with all the latest platform changes can be a challenge, but Google is starting to make that mandatory if you want your app to thrive on the Play Store.
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What do you think of the new Apple iPhone SE? Load Comments. Subscribe to XDA. Samsung launches a handwashing app for Galaxy watches April 17, Google Calendar prepares to add cross-profile support for work and personal calendars April 17, Android 9 API level 28 introduces new features and APIs that you can take advantage of in your apps, as well as new behavior changes.
This document gives you an overview of the steps to migrate your apps to Android 9 across two key phases:. Verify that your existing app is fully functional on the new version of the platform. At this stage, you do not use new APIs or change your app's targetSdkVersionbut minor changes might be necessary.
When you are ready to take advantage of the new features of the platform, update your targetSdkVersion to 28verify the app continues to function as expected, and then begin using new APIs. If you have a compatible deviceobtain the Android 9 system image for your device from the manufacturer; click here for factory images for Pixel devices. General instructions for flashing a system image are here. You can also download the Android 9 system image for the Android Emulator.
Note: The Android 9 emulator system image is available for download in Android Studio 3.El segundo apartments for sale
The objective here is to make sure that your existing app works as-is on Android 9. Because some platform changes might affect the way your app behaves, some adjustments might be necessary, but you do not need to use new APIs or change your targetSdkVersion. For the most part, testing compatibility with Android 9 entails the same type of testing you perform when preparing to release your app.
However, there's another aspect to testing: Android 9 introduces changes to the Android platform that can affect your app's behavior or break the app altogether, even if you do not change your targetSdkVersion. For this reason, it is important that you review the key changes in table 1, and test any fixes that you implement to accommodate the changes.
Table 1. Key changes that affect all apps running on Android 9 devices. For a more extensive list of behavior changes for all apps running on Android 9, see the Behavior Changes document. This section explains how to enable full support for Android 9 by updating your targetSdkVersion to 28 and adding new features available in Android 9.
In addition to offering you new APIs, Android 9 introduces some behavior changes when you update your targetSdkVersion to Because some behavior changes might require code changes to avoid breakage, you should first understand how your app might be affected when you change the targetSdkVersion by reviewing all behavior changes for apps targeting Android 9.
Note: The steps described above to ensure platform compatibility are prerequisite to targeting your app to Android 9, so be sure to complete those steps first.
If you don't need the new features in Android 9 yet, and only want to compile against that version of the platform, you can use Android Studio 3. Android Studio 3. With the above preparations complete, you can build your app and then test it further to make sure it works properly when targeting Android 9 API level When you build your app with the targetSdkVersion set to P, there are specific platform changes you should be aware of.
Some of these changes can significantly affect your app's behavior or even break your app altogether, even if you do not implement new features in Android 9. Table 2. Key changes that affect apps when targetSdkVersion is set to For a more extensive list of behavior changes for apps targeting Android 9, see Behavior Changes document. Content and code samples on this page are subject to the licenses described in the Content License.
About the platform. Android 11 Developer Preview. Privacy updates. Features and APIs. Behavior changes for apps. Get started with Android Android Both new apps and app updates must target at least Android 9 API level Every new Android version introduces changes that bring significant security and performance improvements — and enhance the user experience of Android overall.
Android 10 features and APIs
Some of these changes only apply to apps that explicitly declare support through their targetSdkVersion manifest attribute also known as the target API level. Configuring your app to target a recent API level ensures that users can benefit from these improvements, while still allowing it to run on older Android versions. Targeting a recent API level also allows your app to take advantage of the platform's latest features to delight your users.
This document highlights important points you need to know in updating your target API level to meet the Google Play requirement. To proceed, click on on your app's current API level:.
Note: If your Gradle file contains manifest entries, you can confirm or change the current value of targetSdkVersion in your app's Gradle file, as described in Configure your build. See the respective Behavior Changes page for each of the following releases to ensure your that your app has accounted for changes introduced in these releases:.
The following considerations apply to apps targeting Android 6. Dangerous permissions are only granted at runtime.
Meet Google Play's target API level requirement
Your UI flows must provide affordances for granting these permissions. Wherever possible, ensure your app is prepared to handle rejection of permission requests. For example, if a user declines a request to access the device's GPS, ensure your app has another way to proceed. For an exhaustive list of changes introduced in Android 6.
The following considerations apply to apps targeting Android 7. Design for behaviors described in Optimizing for Doze and App Standbywhich encompasses incremental changes introduced across several platform releases. The system forbids linking to non-NDK libraries. For an exhaustive list of changes introduced in Android 7.
The following considerations apply to apps targeting Android 8.Crj 550 routes
Notification Channels You should define notification interruption properties on a per-channel basis. You must assign notifications to a channel for the notifications to appear. This version of the platform supports NotificationCompat. For an exhaustive list of changes introduced in Android 8. For an exhaustive list of changes introduced in Android 9.
As you update the target API level for your apps, consider adopting recent platform features to modernize your apps and delight your users.Prosthetic leg types pictures
You should also verify any restrictions that may exist in the version of the Android Support Library that you're using. We encourage you to update to a recent compatible Support Library in order to take advantage of the latest compatibility features and bug fixes. After you update your app's API level and features as appropriate, you should test some core use cases.
The following suggestions are not exhaustive, but aim to guide your testing process. We suggest testing:. Handles Doze with expected results and no errors. Using adb, place your test device into Doze while your app is running.
Test any use cases that trigger Firebase Cloud Messaging messages.
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